“严谨笃学，与时俱进，活到老，学到老”是威尼斯教师应有的终身学习观。新学期开始，威尼斯九华高中全体教师团队就“What is a good teacher”进行了演讲比赛，老师们积极参加，抒发己见。各学科组经过首轮展示及演讲，有七位老师脱颖而出。9月4日下午，老师们进行了第二轮演讲评比。在此过程中每位台下的老师也从不同方面和角度进行了学习，并对如何成为更好的老师有了深刻的认识。
《5 Categories Every Teacher Should Excel In.》
The first : Understanding the Classroom
Take a look of the layout of the classroom. Is the class set up in clusters to foster collaboration and group work? Are the desks facing the front to emphasize a teacher-centered class? Does your class have a seating arrangement? A study by Burda and Brooks (1996) concluded that students sitting near the front of the class received much higher achievement scores than students sitting farther away. It further concluded that pre-existing personality traits motivate students to select seats near the front of the classroom (Burda & Brooks, 1996; Edwards, 2000). Teachers can pay attention to the students sitting in the front of the room and swap some of them out with students sitting in the back if they are unmotivated or distracted to enhance overall student performance. The closer a distracted or unmotivated student sits towards the teacher the less that student will be likely to engage in unproductive behavior and the more assistance from the teacher that student will be likely to receive.
Different classroom seating arrangements create various social interaction opportunities. For example, non-linear seating arrangements such as semi-circles or a u-shape increase the possibility of face-to-face communication between students and teachers (Sztejnberg & Finch, 2006). Such seating arrangements promote positive student-student and teacher-student interaction. Furthermore, non-linear seating arrangements, such as those above mentioned, often allow for students to have better access to learning resources, such as the teacher (Wannarka & Ruhl, 2008).
Keeping in mind teachers’ needs, teaching styles also influence the seating arrangement provided to the students (Betoret & Artiga, 2004; Sztejnberg & Finch, 2006). Therefore, though it would be beneficial for students, the type of activity often does not dictate the seating arrangement. Commonly, the instructor’s teaching style dictates the classrooms seating arrangement. With rows or columns of student seating, normally this lends well to individual activities. If teaching style is not one that generally promotes collaboration, then a row or column seating arrangement is ideal. If on the other hand, collaboration or team work is encouraged, then a U-shaped or clustering of seats is recommended. Keep in mind what your primary teaching style is and arrange the classroom accordingly.
In addition to the classroom layout, it’s also important to understand the different teaching theories so that you are better equipped to teach. The five main educational learning theories include：behaviorism, cognitivism, constructivism, humanism, and connectivism. Briefly, behaviorism is known for learning by means of reward or punishment. Cognitivism, is understood as developmental learning. As a child grows up there are different developmental stages that can all influence a child’s learning. Constructivism is a theory that states that every student has a unique ability to construct meaning around them and so teachers must understand that students don’t all absorb and apply the materials the same way. Humanism includes students striving for self-actualization. What this implies is that their physical, emotional and basic needs are met in the classroom so that they can become the best versions of themselves. Lastly, Connectivism is the newest learning theory and it specifies that students learn and grow by forming connections. These five educational learning theories inform teachers about both the similarities and differences between their students in terms of their development and understanding. Teachers are responsible for instructing their students about life as much as their individual subjects.
Equally as important, is the ability for the teacher to differentiate learning. Diversity in a classroom is a great thing, however it can also be a challenge for the teacher. Understanding the classroom is about knowing which students are ahead, which are behind and adapting learning to student differences.
The second : Organizing Skills
After getting to know your classroom and understanding your teaching style and your students, it’s imperative to know how to keep track of everything. This brings us to our next category, Organizing Skills. Why do teachers need great organizing skills? Essentially they are the ones keeping track of grades, assignment submissions, deadlines, meetings, exam dates, time allocated per activity and much more. If a teacher is not organized nor keeps track of the daily routines, important due dates, or time will not be allocated effectively.
这种更大的有效利用时间的能力是众所周知的，无论是在一个相对较大的文献中，心理学和组织行为作为时间管理。文献表明 更好的时间管理技能-包括制定可实现的目标、确定优先事项、监测自己的进展并保持有组织的能力(Claessens等人，2007年)-可以导致MO 在某些情况下，重新有效地利用时间，最终取得更积极的个人成果(例如，Britton&Tesser，1991年)。管理时间或有效利用时间需要技术和良好的计划 英格的行为。过去的研究和许多如何操作的书籍表明，一个人可以有效和有效地利用时间，通过设定短期和长期目标，保持时间日志，优先安排任务，制造 待办事项列表和调度，并组织一个人的工作空间。(Claessens等人，2007年;Macan，1994年)。
This greater capacity for using time effectively is known both colloquially and in a relatively large literature in psychology and organizational behavior as time management. That literature suggests that better time management skills — which include the ability to set achievable goals, identify priorities, monitor one’s own progress, and remain organized (Claessens et al., 2007) — can lead to more effective time use and ultimately more positive individual outcomes in some settings (e.g., Britton & Tesser, 1991). Managing time or making effective use of time requires techniques and good planning behaviors. Past studies and numerous how-to books suggest that one can use time efficiently and productively by setting short-term and long-term goals, keeping time logs, prioritizing tasks, making to-do lists and scheduling, and organizing one’s workspace. (Claessens et al, 2007; Macan,
Below are some great resources and apps that teachers can utilize to keep organized. My personal favorites include Todoist, which is an application that sets deadlines and priorities and syncs them to any device for easy access. Additionally, Microsoft teams is a great platform for keeping grades and assignments all in one place.
It’s not only important to keep organized for the student’s sake but also professionals who manage time better report lower emotional exhaustion, the most important dimension of job burnout (Peeters & Rutte, 2005). They also report higher overall job satisfaction (Macan et al., 1990). Participants in time management training also report greater work/home balance (Green & Skinner, 2005). So next time you think planning or time management is a waste of time, remind yourself of all the benefits and clarity it can provide.
The third: Effective Communication
Let me also explain the next highly important role for being a teacher, the ability to communicate clearly and effectively. As a teacher, communicating with students is the tip of the iceberg. What lies beneath is also the ability to communicate professionally with parents, administrators, colleagues, and occasionally to large crowds during a presentation. Communication also helps others to avoid misunderstanding you and it can even help resolve misunderstandings in the work place.
Communication is both receptive and expressive. Teachers must be skilled at listening to their students as well as explaining things clearly. Teachers need clarity of thought to present the material. They must be able to break down complex ideas into simpler parts and smaller steps to transmit to their students. They must be able to adapt their methods of communication to all students regardless of ability or learning style. They are able to “read” their students and adapt to the needs of the individual. Effective communication includes transforming the boring into the interesting and having good presentation skills. (Silver, 2018).
图|Interpersonal Skills (CFI, 2018).
Communicating effectively can be simplified into what is called “Interpersonal skills”. The image above points out some of the qualities people with good interpersonal skills have. In order to have a good connection with students, parents, and staff it’s imperative that we learn and master interpersonal skills. Interpersonal skills include; Conflict management, Empathy, Leadership, Listening, Negotiation, Positive Attitude, and Team Work.
The fourth : Technological Savviness
Being Technological Savvy is another tool teachers of today need to have in their arsenal. Technology changes so rapidly that teachers need to be able to adapt to the fast paced environment.
In many ways, technology has profoundly changed education. For one, technology has greatly expanded access to education. In medieval times, books were rare and only an elite few had access to educational opportunities. Individuals had to travel to centers of learning to get an education. Today, massive amounts of information (books, audio, images, videos) are available at one’s fingertips through the Internet, and opportunities for formal learning are available online worldwide through the Khan Academy, MOOCs, podcasts, traditional online degree programs, and more. Access to learning opportunities today is unprecedented in scope thanks to technology. This model of the teacher as the “sage on the stage” has been in education for a long time, and it is still very much in evidence today. However, because of the access to information and educational opportunity that technology has enabled, in many classrooms today we see the teacher’s role shifting to the “guide on the side” as students take more responsibility for their own learning using technology to gather relevant information.(Purdue University, 2020).
So how can teachers incorporate technology into their classrooms and engage students? They might be interested in gamification of their materials. Gamification of the classroom is a recent and new technique that helps intrinsically motivate students about a subject.
Technology in Education is also showcased in the model below. Through the collection and analysis of participant data, a cycle of continuous improvement can occur (Zuckerman, 2013). As boomers step out of the workplace, and millennials take over, more and more technology can be expected to be incorporated in the classrooms. Be prepared.
图|Fig. From (Zuckerman, 2013).
Teachers and students have many tools around them. A teacher no longer needs to be the primary holder of all knowledge. Use the tools around you. If a student needs further practice in grammar, he or she can try khan academy. If a student needs to understand Shakespeare–and get information scaffolded to better understand each line–that resource is also available. Book summaries, main ideas, they can all be searched online. However, what can’t is the ability to think critically. While technology gives us ways to make our classrooms multi-modal, engaging and differentiated, it also up to the teacher to enforce credible websites. It needs teachers to lead students towards credible information, and to encourage collaboration between students, develop a sense of community, and to provide authentic learning that will better equip students for our rapidly changing world.
the fifth : Exercising Continuous Learning
In addition to these categories that a teacher will be familiar with, the character of a teacher, is of utmost influence to his or her students. A teacher who is passionate, may give their all which influences student engagement. This type of teacher may dedicate out-of-work hours to attend workshops, community activities, or personal projects that can in-turn provide fresh experiences and knowledge into the classroom. Ultimately, a great teacher makes an impact on his or her students by demonstrating and acting on their love for learning, and by allowing them to explore their own thoughts and curiosities. Learning happens everywhere and anytime, the academic term for it, is called ubiquitous learning. Teachers can use the tools presented by the internet, libraries, peers, and the community to aid in the learning process– because learning is ubiquitous and continuous.