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师说|5 Categories Every Teacher Should Excel In.

2020-09 16

师说|5 Categories Every Teacher Should Excel In.(图1)

  “严谨笃学,与时俱进,活到老,学到老”是威尼斯教师应有的终身学习观。新学期开始,威尼斯九华高中全体教师团队就“What is a good teacher”进行了演讲比赛,老师们积极参加,抒发己见。各学科组经过首轮展示及演讲,有七位老师脱颖而出。9月4日下午,老师们进行了第二轮演讲评比。在此过程中每位台下的老师也从不同方面和角度进行了学习,并对如何成为更好的老师有了深刻的认识。

  会后每个现场老师都进行了投票,经过激烈的角逐,最终英语组的Erica Sullivan老师荣获演讲季军

师说|5 Categories Every Teacher Should Excel In.(图2)

  Erica Sullivan老师

  威尼斯高中九华威尼斯9778官方网站文学老师

  《5 Categories Every Teacher Should Excel In.》

  【演讲稿摘要】

  有些人可能认为,成为一名老师意味着要掌握向学生传授的内容。但是,教师的作用不仅限于主题和学生理解。老师是他们自己教室里的研究人员。他们了解教室的动态,特别是哪些学生落后,哪些学生领先。老师也对学生可能遇到的任何行为和/或心理问题有一个大致的了解。为了帮助教师走向卓越,我创建了教师应注意的5个主要类别。第一类:了解教室;第二类:组织技能;第三类:有效沟通;第四类:技术熟练度;第五类:进行持续学习。

师说|5 Categories Every Teacher Should Excel In.(图3)

  第一:了解教室

  The first : Understanding the Classroom

  看一看教室的布局。是否将课堂设置为集群以促进协作和小组合作?办公桌是否面向前方以强调以教师为中心的课堂?您的班级有座位安排吗?Burda和Brooks(1996)的一项研究得出的结论是,坐在班上最前面的学生比离开更远的学生获得更高的成就分数。它进一步得出结论,已有的人格特质促使学生选择教室前部附近的座位。老师可以注意坐在教室前面的学生,如果他们没有动力或分心以提高整体学习成绩,可以将他们中的一些与坐在后面的学生交换出去。一个分心或没有动力的学生越靠近老师,学生越会从事非生产性行为,而从老师那里得到的帮助则越多。

  Take a look of the layout of the classroom. Is the class set up in clusters to foster collaboration and group work? Are the desks facing the front to emphasize a teacher-centered class? Does your class have a seating arrangement? A study by Burda and Brooks (1996) concluded that students sitting near the front of the class received much higher achievement scores than students sitting farther away. It further concluded that pre-existing personality traits motivate students to select seats near the front of the classroom (Burda & Brooks, 1996; Edwards, 2000). Teachers can pay attention to the students sitting in the front of the room and swap some of them out with students sitting in the back if they are unmotivated or distracted to enhance overall student performance. The closer a distracted or unmotivated student sits towards the teacher the less that student will be likely to engage in unproductive behavior and the more assistance from the teacher that student will be likely to receive.

  不同的教室座位安排会产生各种社交互动机会。例如,非线性座位布置(例如半圆形或U形)增加了学生和老师之间面对面交流的可能性(Sztejnberg&Finch,2006)。这样的座位安排促进了积极的学生-学生和老师-学生的互动。此外,诸如上述的非线性座位安排通常使学生能够更好地使用学习资源,例如老师(Wannarka&Ruhl,2008)。

  Different classroom seating arrangements create various social interaction opportunities. For example, non-linear seating arrangements such as semi-circles or a u-shape increase the possibility of face-to-face communication between students and teachers (Sztejnberg & Finch, 2006). Such seating arrangements promote positive student-student and teacher-student interaction. Furthermore, non-linear seating arrangements, such as those above mentioned, often allow for students to have better access to learning resources, such as the teacher (Wannarka & Ruhl, 2008).

  考虑到教师的需求,教学风格也会影响为学生提供的座位安排。因此,尽管对学生有利,但活动类型通常并不决定座位安排。通常,讲师的教学风格决定了教室的座位安排。在成排或成排的学生座位上,通常很适合个人活动。如果教学风格不能普遍促进协作,那么排行或列座位的布置是理想的。另一方面,如果鼓励协作或团队合作,则建议使用U形或成簇的座位。请记住您的主要教学风格是什么,并相应安排教室。

  Keeping in mind teachers’ needs, teaching styles also influence the seating arrangement provided to the students (Betoret & Artiga, 2004; Sztejnberg & Finch, 2006). Therefore, though it would be beneficial for students, the type of activity often does not dictate the seating arrangement. Commonly, the instructor’s teaching style dictates the classrooms seating arrangement. With rows or columns of student seating, normally this lends well to individual activities. If teaching style is not one that generally promotes collaboration, then a row or column seating arrangement is ideal. If on the other hand, collaboration or team work is encouraged, then a U-shaped or clustering of seats is recommended. Keep in mind what your primary teaching style is and arrange the classroom accordingly.

师说|5 Categories Every Teacher Should Excel In.(图4)

  除了教室布局之外,理解不同的教学理论也很重要,这样您才能更好地进行教学。五种主要的教育学习理论包括:行为主义,认知主义,建构主义,人本主义和连接主义。简而言之,行为主义因奖励或惩罚而学习。认知主义被理解为发展学习。随着孩子的成长,会有不同的发展阶段,这些阶段都会影响孩子的学习。建构主义是一种理论,认为每个学生都有独特的能力在周围构筑意义,因此教师必须了解,学生并不会完全以相同的方式吸收和运用材料。人文主义包括努力实现自我实现的学生。这意味着在教室中满足了他们的身体,情感和基本需求,因此他们可以成为自己最好的版本。最后,连接主义是最新的学习理论,它规定学生通过建立联系来学习和成长。这五种教育学习理论使教师了解学生之间在发展和理解方面的异同。老师负责指导学生和他们的个人一样多的生活。

  In addition to the classroom layout, it’s also important to understand the different teaching theories so that you are better equipped to teach. The five main educational learning theories include:behaviorism, cognitivism, constructivism, humanism, and connectivism. Briefly, behaviorism is known for learning by means of reward or punishment. Cognitivism, is understood as developmental learning. As a child grows up there are different developmental stages that can all influence a child’s learning. Constructivism is a theory that states that every student has a unique ability to construct meaning around them and so teachers must understand that students don’t all absorb and apply the materials the same way. Humanism includes students striving for self-actualization. What this implies is that their physical, emotional and basic needs are met in the classroom so that they can become the best versions of themselves. Lastly, Connectivism is the newest learning theory and it specifies that students learn and grow by forming connections. These five educational learning theories inform teachers about both the similarities and differences between their students in terms of their development and understanding. Teachers are responsible for instructing their students about life as much as their individual subjects.

师说|5 Categories Every Teacher Should Excel In.(图5)

  同样重要的是,老师区分学习的能力。课堂上的多样性是一件很棒的事情,但是对于老师来说也可能是一个挑战。了解教室是关于了解哪些学生领先,哪些学生落后以及使学习适应学生的差异。

  Equally as important, is the ability for the teacher to differentiate learning. Diversity in a classroom is a great thing, however it can also be a challenge for the teacher. Understanding the classroom is about knowing which students are ahead, which are behind and adapting learning to student differences.

  第二:组织技能

  The second : Organizing Skills

  在了解了您的教室并了解了您的教学风格和学生之后,就必须知道如何跟踪所有事情。这将我们带入下一类组织技能。为什么老师需要出色的组织能力?从本质上讲,它们是跟踪成绩,作业提交,截止日期,会议,考试日期,每个活动分配的时间等等。如果没有组织好老师或不注意日常工作,重要的到期日或时间将无法有效分配。

  After getting to know your classroom and understanding your teaching style and your students, it’s imperative to know how to keep track of everything. This brings us to our next category, Organizing Skills. Why do teachers need great organizing skills? Essentially they are the ones keeping track of grades, assignment submissions, deadlines, meetings, exam dates, time allocated per activity and much more. If a teacher is not organized nor keeps track of the daily routines, important due dates, or time will not be allocated effectively.

师说|5 Categories Every Teacher Should Excel In.(图6)

  这种更大的有效利用时间的能力是众所周知的,无论是在一个相对较大的文献中,心理学和组织行为作为时间管理。文献表明 更好的时间管理技能-包括制定可实现的目标、确定优先事项、监测自己的进展并保持有组织的能力(Claessens等人,2007年)-可以导致MO 在某些情况下,重新有效地利用时间,最终取得更积极的个人成果(例如,Britton&Tesser,1991年)。管理时间或有效利用时间需要技术和良好的计划 英格的行为。过去的研究和许多如何操作的书籍表明,一个人可以有效和有效地利用时间,通过设定短期和长期目标,保持时间日志,优先安排任务,制造 待办事项列表和调度,并组织一个人的工作空间。(Claessens等人,2007年;Macan,1994年)。

  This greater capacity for using time effectively is known both colloquially and in a relatively large literature in psychology and organizational behavior as time management. That literature suggests that better time management skills — which include the ability to set achievable goals, identify priorities, monitor one’s own progress, and remain organized (Claessens et al., 2007) — can lead to more effective time use and ultimately more positive individual outcomes in some settings (e.g., Britton & Tesser, 1991). Managing time or making effective use of time requires techniques and good planning behaviors. Past studies and numerous how-to books suggest that one can use time efficiently and productively by setting short-term and long-term goals, keeping time logs, prioritizing tasks, making to-do lists and scheduling, and organizing one’s workspace. (Claessens et al, 2007; Macan,

  1994).

  以下是教师可以用来保持井井有条的一些出色资源和应用程序。我个人最喜欢的包括Todoist,它是一个设置截止日期和优先级并将其同步到任何设备以方便访问的应用程序。此外,Microsoft团队是一个很好的平台,可将成绩和作业都集中在一个地方。

  Below are some great resources and apps that teachers can utilize to keep organized. My personal favorites include Todoist, which is an application that sets deadlines and priorities and syncs them to any device for easy access. Additionally, Microsoft teams is a great platform for keeping grades and assignments all in one place.

师说|5 Categories Every Teacher Should Excel In.(图7)

  为学生着想,不仅要保持井井有条,而且要更好地管理时间,要减少情绪疲惫,这是工作倦怠的最重要方面,这对他们来说很重要(Peeters&Rutte,2005)。他们还报告了更高的总体工作满意度(Macan等,1990)。参加时间管理培训的参与者还报告说,他们的工作/家庭平衡更高(Green&Skinner,2005年)。因此,下次您认为计划或时间管理浪费时间时,请提醒自己它可以提供的所有好处和清晰性。

  It’s not only important to keep organized for the student’s sake but also professionals who manage time better report lower emotional exhaustion, the most important dimension of job burnout (Peeters & Rutte, 2005). They also report higher overall job satisfaction (Macan et al., 1990). Participants in time management training also report greater work/home balance (Green & Skinner, 2005). So next time you think planning or time management is a waste of time, remind yourself of all the benefits and clarity it can provide.

  第三:有效沟通

  The third: Effective Communication

师说|5 Categories Every Teacher Should Excel In.(图8)

  让我也解释一下成为老师的下一个非常重要的角色,即清晰有效地沟通的能力。作为老师,与学生交流是冰山一角。在演示过程中,还可以与父母,管理人员,同事进行专业交流,有时还可以与其他人群进行专业交流。交流还可以帮助其他人避免对您的误解,甚至可以帮助解决工作场所中的误解。

  Let me also explain the next highly important role for being a teacher, the ability to communicate clearly and effectively. As a teacher, communicating with students is the tip of the iceberg. What lies beneath is also the ability to communicate professionally with parents, administrators, colleagues, and occasionally to large crowds during a presentation. Communication also helps others to avoid misunderstanding you and it can even help resolve misunderstandings in the work place.

  交流既可以接受,也可以表达。教师必须熟练听取学生的意见,并清楚地说明事情。老师需要思路清晰,以介绍材料。他们必须能够将复杂的想法分解为更简单的部分和更小的步骤,以传递给学生。无论能力或学习方式如何,他们都必须能够适应所有学生的交流方式。他们能够“阅读”他们的学生并适应个人的需求。有效的沟通包括将无聊变成有趣的并具有良好的表达能力。(银,2018)。

  Communication is both receptive and expressive. Teachers must be skilled at listening to their students as well as explaining things clearly. Teachers need clarity of thought to present the material. They must be able to break down complex ideas into simpler parts and smaller steps to transmit to their students. They must be able to adapt their methods of communication to all students regardless of ability or learning style. They are able to “read” their students and adapt to the needs of the individual. Effective communication includes transforming the boring into the interesting and having good presentation skills. (Silver, 2018).

师说|5 Categories Every Teacher Should Excel In.(图9)

  图|Interpersonal Skills (CFI, 2018).

  有效沟通可以简化为所谓的“人际交往能力”。上面的图像指出了具有良好人际交往能力的人所具有的一些素质。为了与学生,父母和教职员工保持良好的联系,必须学习和掌握人际交往能力。人际关系技巧包括;冲突管理,同理心,领导力,倾听,谈判,积极态度和团队合作精神。

  Communicating effectively can be simplified into what is called “Interpersonal skills”. The image above points out some of the qualities people with good interpersonal skills have. In order to have a good connection with students, parents, and staff it’s imperative that we learn and master interpersonal skills. Interpersonal skills include; Conflict management, Empathy, Leadership, Listening, Negotiation, Positive Attitude, and Team Work.

  第四:技术熟练度

  The fourth : Technological Savviness

  成为技术精明的人是当今教师需要在其武器库中使用的另一种工具。技术变化如此之快,以至于教师需要能够适应快速发展的环境。

  Being Technological Savvy is another tool teachers of today need to have in their arsenal. Technology changes so rapidly that teachers need to be able to adapt to the fast paced environment.

  在许多方面,技术深刻地改变了教育。首先,技术极大地扩大了受教育的机会。在中世纪,书籍很少见,只有少数精英能够获得教育机会。个人必须前往学习中心接受教育。如今,可通过Internet触手可及的地方可以获得大量信息(书籍,音频,图像,视频),并且可汗学院,MOOC,播客,传统的在线学位课程等在世界范围内都可以在线获得正式学习的机会。借助技术,今天获得学习机会的范围是空前的。这种作为“舞台上的圣人”的教师模式已经在教育中使用了很长时间,并且今天仍然有很多证据。但是,由于技术带来的信息访问和教育机会,今天,在许多教室中,我们看到老师的角色转移到了“边路指导”上,因为学生对使用技术收集相关信息的学习承担了更多责任。(普渡大学,2020年)。

  In many ways, technology has profoundly changed education. For one, technology has greatly expanded access to education. In medieval times, books were rare and only an elite few had access to educational opportunities. Individuals had to travel to centers of learning to get an education. Today, massive amounts of information (books, audio, images, videos) are available at one’s fingertips through the Internet, and opportunities for formal learning are available online worldwide through the Khan Academy, MOOCs, podcasts, traditional online degree programs, and more. Access to learning opportunities today is unprecedented in scope thanks to technology. This model of the teacher as the “sage on the stage” has been in education for a long time, and it is still very much in evidence today. However, because of the access to information and educational opportunity that technology has enabled, in many classrooms today we see the teacher’s role shifting to the “guide on the side” as students take more responsibility for their own learning using technology to gather relevant information.(Purdue University, 2020).

师说|5 Categories Every Teacher Should Excel In.(图10)

  那么老师如何将技术融入他们的课堂中并吸引学生呢?他们可能对材料的游戏化感兴趣。课堂游戏化是一种新近出现的新技术,可从本质上帮助学生激发对某个主题的兴趣。

  So how can teachers incorporate technology into their classrooms and engage students? They might be interested in gamification of their materials. Gamification of the classroom is a recent and new technique that helps intrinsically motivate students about a subject.

  以下模型也展示了教育技术。通过收集和分析参与者数据,可以出现一个持续改进的周期(Zuckerman,2013)。随着婴儿潮一代离开工作场所,千禧一代接任,可以预期将越来越多的技术纳入课堂。做好准备。

  Technology in Education is also showcased in the model below. Through the collection and analysis of participant data, a cycle of continuous improvement can occur (Zuckerman, 2013). As boomers step out of the workplace, and millennials take over, more and more technology can be expected to be incorporated in the classrooms. Be prepared.

师说|5 Categories Every Teacher Should Excel In.(图11)

  图|Fig. From (Zuckerman, 2013).

  师生周围有很多工具。老师不再需要成为所有知识的主要持有者。使用您周围的工具。如果学生需要进一步的语法练习,则可以尝试可汗学院。如果学生需要理解莎士比亚,并获得信息支架以更好地理解每一条线,那么该资源也是可用的。书籍摘要,主要思想都可以在线搜索。但是,不能有批判性思考的能力。尽管技术为我们提供了使我们的教室具有多模式,互动性和差异性的方式,但也取决于老师来建立可信的网站。它需要教师引导学生获取可靠的信息,并鼓励学生之间的合作,发展社区意识,并提供真实的学习方式,从而更好地为学生提供适应瞬息万变的世界的能力。

  Teachers and students have many tools around them. A teacher no longer needs to be the primary holder of all knowledge. Use the tools around you. If a student needs further practice in grammar, he or she can try khan academy. If a student needs to understand Shakespeare–and get information scaffolded to better understand each line–that resource is also available. Book summaries, main ideas, they can all be searched online. However, what can’t is the ability to think critically. While technology gives us ways to make our classrooms multi-modal, engaging and differentiated, it also up to the teacher to enforce credible websites. It needs teachers to lead students towards credible information, and to encourage collaboration between students, develop a sense of community, and to provide authentic learning that will better equip students for our rapidly changing world.

  第五:持续性学习

  the fifth : Exercising Continuous Learning

师说|5 Categories Every Teacher Should Excel In.(图12)

  除了教师会熟悉的这些类别之外,教师的品格对他或她的学生具有最大的影响。充满激情的老师可以尽其所能影响学生的敬业度。这种类型的老师可能会在工作时间以外参加研讨会,社区活动或个人项目,从而为课堂提供新鲜的经验和知识。归根结底,一位优秀的老师通过展示和表现他们对学习的热爱,并允许他们探索自己的思想和好奇心,对他或她的学生产生影响。学习无所不在,在学术上被称为无处不在的学习。教师可以使用互联网,图书馆,同行和社区提供的工具来协助学习过程,因为学习无处不在且持续不断。

  In addition to these categories that a teacher will be familiar with, the character of a teacher, is of utmost influence to his or her students. A teacher who is passionate, may give their all which influences student engagement. This type of teacher may dedicate out-of-work hours to attend workshops, community activities, or personal projects that can in-turn provide fresh experiences and knowledge into the classroom. Ultimately, a great teacher makes an impact on his or her students by demonstrating and acting on their love for learning, and by allowing them to explore their own thoughts and curiosities. Learning happens everywhere and anytime, the academic term for it, is called ubiquitous learning. Teachers can use the tools presented by the internet, libraries, peers, and the community to aid in the learning process– because learning is ubiquitous and continuous.

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